【滚球体育】大麻的危险性低于酒精与烟草?

本文摘要:For Michele Leonhart, the administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration, there is no difference between the health effects of marijuana and those of any other illegal drug. All illegal drugs are bad for people, she told Congress in 2012, refusing to say whether crack, methamphetamines or prescription painkillers are more addictive or physically harmful than marijuana.在美国禁毒署局长米歇尔·莱昂哈特(Michele Leonhart)显然,大麻引发的身体健康问题和其他违禁药品引发的身体健康问题是没区别的。

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Nonetheless, that health problem is far less significant than for other substances, legal and illegal. The Institute of Medicine, the health arm of the National Academy of Sciences, said in a 1999 study that 32 percent of tobacco users become dependent, as do 23 percent of heroin users, 17 percent of cocaine users, and 15 percent of alcohol drinkers. But only 9 percent of marijuana users develop a dependence.不管怎样,这种身体健康问题远比其他合法或不合法物品所带给的身体健康问题要严重得多。药学研究中心是国家科学院的身体健康分部,它在1999年的一份研究报告中说道,32%的吸烟者不会成瘾,23%的海洛因使用者不会成瘾,17%的可卡因使用者不会成瘾,15%的饮酒者不会成瘾,但只有9%的大麻使用者不会成瘾。

Although few marijuana users develop dependence, some do, according to the study. But they appear to be less likely to do so than users of other drugs (including alcohol and nicotine), and marijuana dependence appears to be less severe than dependence on other drugs.“大麻成瘾者人数很少,但显然有人不会成瘾,”这项研究说道,“但是和用于其他药品(还包括酒精与尼古丁)比起,大麻的上瘾亲率很低。”There’s no need to ban a substance that has less than a third of the addictive potential of cigarettes, but state governments can discourage heavy use through taxes and education campaigns and help provide treatment for those who wish to quit.几乎没适当禁令一种上瘾亲率将近香烟1/3的东西,但各州政府可以通过征税重税和教育来避免人们大量用于大麻,并对必须服用的人获取化疗。Impact on Young People对年轻人的影响One of the favorite arguments of legalization opponents is that marijuana is the pathway to more dangerous drugs. But a wide variety of researchers have found no causal factor pushing users up the ladder of harm. While 111 million Americans have tried marijuana, only a third of that number have tried cocaine, and only 4 percent heroin. People who try marijuana are more likely than the general population to try other drugs, but that doesn’t mean marijuana prompted them to do so.赞成大麻合法化的人最常用的论据之一,就是大麻不会造成使用者尝试更加危险性的毒品。但各种普遍研究证明,大麻与使用者升级用于更加危险性的物品之间不不存在因果关系。

1.11亿美国人都曾尝试用于大麻,尝试用于可卡因的人只有该数字的1/3,尝试用于海洛因的人只相等于这个数字的4%。在用于大麻的人群中,尝试其他毒品的人数比例要比普通人群为低,但并不是大麻造成了此不道德。Marijuana “does not appear to be a gateway drug to the extent that it is the cause or even that it is the most significant predictor of serious drug abuse,” the Institute of Medicine study said. The real gateway drugs are tobacco and alcohol, which young people turn to first before trying marijuana.药学研究中心的报告说道,大麻“并不是一种入门药物,并不是药物相当严重欺诈的原因,甚至也不是药物相当严重欺诈的最重要伴随因素”。

确实的入门药物是烟草和酒精,年轻人早于在尝试大麻之前就早已认识到它们了。It’s clear, though, that marijuana is now far too easy for minors to obtain, which remains a significant problem. The brain undergoes active development until about age 21, and there is evidence that young people are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of marijuana.不过,对于未成年人来说,如今提供大麻似乎非常容易,这依然是个相当严重的问题。大脑发育活动要持续到21岁,有证据指出年轻人更容易不受大麻副作用影响。

A long-term study based in New Zealand, published in 2012, found that people who began smoking heavily in their teens and continued into adulthood lost an average of eight I.Q. points by age 38 that could not be fully restored. A Canadian study published in 2002 also found an I.Q. loss among heavy school-age users who smoked at least five joints a week.2012年,一项新西兰的长年研究指出,从十几岁开始大量用于大麻,并在成年期持续用于大麻的人到38岁时智商不会上升8分,无法完全恢复。另一项加拿大于2002年公布的研究指出,学龄期大量用于大麻(每周最少吸食五支大麻烟卷)不会造成智商上升。The case is not completely settled. The New Zealand study was challenged by a Norwegian researcher who said socio-economic factors may have played a role in the I.Q. loss. But the recent review by experts at the National Institute on Drug Abuse concluded that adults who smoked heavily in adolescence had impaired neural connections that interfered with the functioning of their brains. Early and frequent marijuana use has also been associated with poor grades, apathy and dropping out of school, but it is unclear whether consumption triggered the poor grades.这项结论未几乎定案。

新西兰的研究受到挪威一个研究者的批评,他声称社会经济因素也有可能造成智商上升。但国家药物滥用研究所最近的专家报告指出,从青春期就大量用于大麻的人的神经相连不会受到伤害,从而影响大脑功能。

过早常常用于大麻也与成绩不欠佳、缺少兴趣和退学有关,但成绩不欠佳否由用于大麻造成,目前尚能不具体。Restricting marijuana to adults is more important now that Colorado merchants are selling THC, the drug’s active ingredient, in candy bars, cookies and other edible forms likely to appeal to minors. Experience in Colorado has shown that people can quickly ingest large amounts of THC that way, which can produce frightening hallucinations.目前,更加最重要的是把大麻的用于局限在成年人范围之内,科罗拉多州商人正在售卖含有四氢大麻酚(这是大麻的活性成分,全称THC)的糖果、饼干,以及其他可食用物品,这对未成年人来说有可能很有吸引力。

科罗拉多的经验指出人们可以通过食用途径,很快吸取大量THC,这有可能造成可怕的幻觉。Although marijuana use had been declining among high school students for more than a decade, in recent years it has started to climb, in contrast to continuing declines in cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Marijuana was found — alone or in combination with other drugs — in more than 455,000 patients visiting emergency rooms in 2011. Nearly 70 percent of the teenagers in residential substance-abuse programs run by Phoenix House, which operates drug and alcohol treatment centers in 10 states, listed marijuana as their primary problem.尽管十年多以来,大麻在高中生中的使用率早已上升,但近年又开始经常出现上升,与此同时,吸烟者和饮酒的比例仍然在上升。2011年,有45.5万名急诊病人被找到用于大麻(以及其他药品)。

“凤凰屋”(Phoenix House)在10个州中经营着毒品与吸毒化疗中心,在它所主办的家庭反欺诈毒品计划中,近70%的慈善机构青少年将大麻列入自己最初的问题。Those are challenges for regulators in any state that chooses to legalize marijuana. But they are familiar challenges, and they will become easier for governments to deal with once more of them bring legal marijuana under tight regulation.这些都是自由选择将大麻合法化的各州管理者所面对的挑战。但这都是一些熟知的挑战,各州政府一旦将合法化的大麻置放严格管理之下,问题就不会显得更容易应付得多。

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